Health Education AIDS Liaison, Toronto

HIV has not been isolated
What are the HIV antibody tests really reacting to?

Two historic papers in the leading science journal Virology in March 1997* provide astonishing data on the alleged purification and isolation of HIV. For the first time in the history of AIDS, elusive electron microscope images of 'HIV' collected or 'banded' at the official density required for retroviruses, 1.16 gm/ml, were published. The electronmicrographs (EMs) disclose "major contaminants" in "pure HIV". In the example below, note that the arrows labeled 'V' point to the few particles that are "retrovirus- like".

arrows marked "V" point to the few particles that might be retroviruses

The authors of these studies concede that their pictures reveal the vast majority of the material in the density gradient is cellular contamination. HIV expert Hans Gelderblom of Berlin's Robert Koch Institute, whose photos of non-banded 'HIV' material have been the industrial benchmark since 1987, co-authored the first paper which describes the contamination as "an excess of vesicles" - particles of cellular proteins, that may contain DNA or RNA. In a consecutive paper, a U.S. research team from the AIDS Vaccine Program in Maryland reveal carefully, "It is unknown how these cellular proteins associate with the virus" and warn, "The presence of microvesicles in purified retroviruses has practical implications". Both teams discuss the resulting nonspecifity of HIV tests, all of which are based on early unchecked "purified HIV".

* Gluschankof et al. Cell Membrane Vesicles Are a Major Contaminant of Gradient-Enriched Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Preparations. Virology; 230(1): 125-133 (1997)
Bess et al. Microvesicles Are a Source of Contaminated Cellular Proteins Found in Purified HIV-1 Preparations. Virology; 230(1): 134-144 (1997)

further discussion of these EM photos

Where's the HIV?

In accepting Gallo's AIDS virus hypothesis, researchers and physicians took for granted that Gallo had isolated a unique retrovirus, HIV, and that the proteins he used to construct the HIV antibody tests came from pure isolates of the virus. Since the announcement of Gallo's discovery of HIV however, a number of scientists have raised serious questions about what have been accepted as HIV isolates.

According to their claims, HIV, unlike other viruses, has never been isolated as an independent stable particle. These scientists assert that electron microscope pictures or micrographs of all HIV isolates originally produced by Gallo and by other AIDS researchers since show some objects that look like retroviruses along with a number of other microbial objects that clearly are not viruses, and that among these, the retrovirus-like objects called HIV are only observed in cell cultures that have been stimulated by certain chemicals.

Isolation is the only direct and unambiguous evidence of a virus, and isolation of a virus from the uncultured plasma of a patient is the only proof that a person has an active viral infection. Cultures are artificial laboratory environments that contain replicating microorganisms or cells.

Normally, true isolation can be achieved without difficulty as people with an active viral infection will have lots of viruses in their plasma. This is not the case with HIV. In fact, there is no evidence that anyone has ever found what is called HIV in fresh plasma. Instead, AIDS researchers are only able to find what they call HIV when plasma or immune cells (co-cultures) and stimulating chemicals are added to cultures. Since artificially stimulated cultures can induce viral DNA to produce viruses even when the patient's plasma contains no virus, finding virus under these circumstances does not constitute evidence that patient plasma contains virus. True virus isolation requires using fresh, uncultured plasma.

When virus can be isolated from the fresh plasma of 99% of people who test positive in validation studies, the test can be considered 99% accurate. When claims of co-culture isolation are used to evaluate positive HIV test results, the accuracy is 0 to 10% for patients with no AIDS symptoms, and about 40% for patients who have symptoms of AIDS-defining illness.

The true accuracy of HIV antibody tests has never been established by determining what percentage of people who test positive on HIV antibody tests have actual HIV that can be isolated from their fresh, uncultured plasma. This, along with the fact that what is called HIV has been observed only in artificial laboratory growths stimulated by chemical agents, has led some scientists to conclude that HIV has never been isolated and that all HIV tests are invalid.

from: What if everything you thought about AIDS was wrong?
by Christine Maggiore

Plasma: The natural solution that remains when white blood cells are removed from the blood.

What "HIV" Researchers mean
by "isolation" and cloning


12th World AIDS Conference Official Satelite Meeting
Geneva, June 28th 1998

Presentation by Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos et al.
Department of Medical Physics,
Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia

IFAS Press-Communique from the 12th World AIDS Conference
None of the so-called "HIV-markers", biomedical or genetic, seen in human subjects labelled "HIV positive" and/or having "AIDS" has been known to be specific for "HIV".

An interview with Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos
By Christine Johnson
Dr. Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos is a biophysicist and leader of a group of HIV/AIDS scientists from Perth in Western Australia. Over the past decade and more she and her colleagues have published many scientific papers questioning the HIV/AIDS hypothesis. This interview by Christine Johnson looks at this work and especially her group's views on the AIDS virus itself.

Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos (1) Valendar F.Turner (2) John M. Papadimitriou (3) David Causer (1)
Continuum Vol.4 No.3 Sept./Oct. 1996
(1) Department of Medical Physics, (2) Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia; (3) Department of Pathology, University of Western Australia.
The Perth Group assert that the recognized scientific procedure for the isolation of a retrovirus has never been applied to HIV. Therefore all current HIV detection tests lack a "gold standard" against which they could be evaluated to ensure that HIV is being detected. Papadopulos-Eleopulos et al. explain:
"A virus is a microscopic particle of particular size and shape (morphology) which contains particular constituents (biochemical properties) and which is able to replicate only at the behest of living protoplasm, that is, a virus is an obligatory intracellular parasite. Replication of a virus-like particle is the property which defines the particle as being infectious, that is, virus-like particle + replication = virus.
"These defining data determine that the only way to prove the existence of a novel (new) virus is to (i) isolate viral-like particles, that is, first obtain the particles separate from everything else; (ii) determine their morphological characteristics; (iii) analyse their constituents (nucleic acid and proteins) demonstrating that such properties are those of retroviruses and are unique; (iv) prove that the particles are infectious, that is, when pure particles are introduced into non-infected cell cultures, new but identical particles appear.
"Only then can the viral-like particles be deemed to a virus. In the case of retroviruses, the steps in this procedure were developed over the half century that preceded the AIDS era and are described in Toplin and Sinoussi."

A summary of the views of Papadopulos-Eleopulos et al.
These few pages have the main points of the Perth Group's argument with comments on the March '97 Virology publications.

Perth Group web site

By Paul Philpott
Does HIV exist? Do HIV tests indicate HIV infection?
Here Paul Philpott explains why some scientists say no.

ISOLATION 101: The Basics
By Paul Philpott
A very helpful primer on viral isolation and tests for viruses and their antibodies.

On July 17th 1997, the French investigative journalist Djamel Tahi interviewed Professor Luc Montagnier in camera at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Montagnier was asked, "Why do the EM (electron microscope) photographs published by you [in 1983] come from the culture and not the purification?". His reply was, "There was so little production of virus it was impossible to see what might be in a concentrate of the virus from the gradient ["pure virus"]. There was not enough virus to do that. Of course one looked for it, one looked for it in the tissues at the start, likewise the biopsy. We saw some particles but they did not have the morphology typical of retroviruses. They were very different. Relatively different. So with the [unpurified] cultures it took many hours to find the first pictures. It was a Roman effort! ... I repeat we did not purify. ..."

By Djamel Tahi
The French journalist Djamel Tahi interviews Dr. Luc Montagnier, the "discoverer of HIV", about the isolation of the virus. Although he claims to have isolated "HIV", Montagnier admits he never presented any electron microscope images of purified HIV, despite great efforts, because at the appropriate experimental density in test solution his team found no particles with "morphology typical of retroviruses."

Commentary on Montagnier Interview
By Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos et al.

According to the draft report of a three-year investigation by the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations there was a "continuing coverup" by successive U.S. administrations of scientific misconduct (fraud?) by Gallo and other American scientists in the "discovery" of the "AIDS virus" and the invention of the "AIDS test". The bottom line is Gallo has admitted he never isolated HTLV 3b (HIV) the "probable cause of AIDS". (Luc Montagnier (Inst. Pasteur, France) confessed the same in a 1997 interview with Djamel Tahi.)

Dr. Etienne de Harven is emeritus Professor of Pathology, University of Toronto, worked in electron microscopy (EM) primarily on the ultrastructure of retroviruses throughout his professional career of 25 years at the Sloan Kettering Institute in New York and 13 years at the University of Toronto. Here you will find the letter and photo he sent to Continuum.

Retrovirus Pioneer Rejects HIV-AIDS Model
By Paul Philpott
No retrovirus can cause AIDS, virus isolation expert Etienne De Harven, PhD, concludes.

Correspondence with Robin Weiss
This scientific debate consists of five propositions/ responses by Val Turner and Robin Weiss (London) conducted over February/August 1999.

An interview with Peter Duesberg by Mark Gabrish Conlan
Professor Duesberg defending his position against scientists who argue that HIV has not been proven to exist.

Should HIV-AIDS Critics Question the Existence of HIV?

The Australian HIV-AIDS research team led by biophysicist Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos answer their fellow AIDS reappraisers who wish to ignore their doubts about HIV's very existence. They have scoured the scientific data in search of reasons to believe that HIV exists.

Although there has been a great deal of debate over the proof for the existence of HIV and retroviruses both the views represented by Duesberg and Papadopulos-Eleopulos et al. deliver the same important message; HIV cannot be the cause of AIDS. It matters little in practical terms whether this is because the HIV retrovirus may not exist (Papadopulos-Eleopulos and colleagues) or because no retrovirus has ever been proven to cause disease in humans or wild animals (Duesberg). It takes great courage for any scientist to risk the ruin of their career to argue with the AIDS establishment over these fundimental issues. Those who have resolved to do so are set apart from the herd and deserve our respect, even if we may not agree with every point of their argument.
More details of the debate can be found here.

Breaking News!
"Amazing", "literal" picture,
showing an actual AIDS virus attacking a human cell!

As Neville Hodgkinson has said, "the pictures of the virus that have appeared around the world are artists' impressions and computer simulations, based on indirect observations by molecular biologists, not isolation of the virus itself." The latest news is just more of the same.

MISSING VIRUS! 1000 Reward

Blind romantics still believe HIV causes AIDS. But if 'HIV' has never been isolated, what is AIDS?

Never isolated? You bet! A cash prize of 1000 is offered to the first person finding one scientific paper establishing actual isolation of HIV.

If you or a friendly 'AIDS expert' can prove isolation, 1000 is yours. In cash. In public.

Interested? Pledge the money to your favourite AIDS charity, why not?

We bet you'll be surprised to discover the truth.

More articles on the question of HIV isolation


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